Big "Jake" Jacob Troxell and his wife Princess Cornblossom and the Genealogical Proof Standard

"Big Jake" and the Corn Blossom
found on findagrave
Oh boy, where to start with this one. This pair, Jake and Corn Blossom, AKA Pawalin, recently came to my attention on wikitree when a member questioned the validity of their story, in fact they questioned the existence of Corn Blossom, the reputed wife of Big Jake.  George Jacob Troxell is said to be the son of David Troxel and his wife Anna Elizabeth (Elizabeth) Saenger. (Not sure why she has two middle names, both Elizabeth, this is most likely an error). Jacob's wife is, according to this wiki profile, a woman named Pawalin (Corn Blossom) Doublehead. There seems to be no doubt concerning the existence of Jacob Troxel, but the identity of his wife Corn Blossom, said to be a Cherokee woman, the daughter of a Chief named Doublehead, seems to be disputed by some.

As with similar posts I have written, I would like to apply the Genealogical Proof Standard (GPS) to Corn Blossom and Jacob and see where it leads.  If you haven't heard of the GPS, and you are interested in genealogy, you should look it up. The GPS is the standard, approved by the Board for Certification of Genealogist, that lays out the methodology for proving a genealogical question. I won't go into all the details, as there are whole books written on the subject, but will apply the standard to this genealogy quest. I call it a quest because genealogy is all about answering questions, who was my grandfather, where was my grandmother born, etc.

This first part of the standard requires thorough (reasonably exhaustive) research which will hopefully provide documentation that will help answer our question. [1] I need to find two or more independent, original sources, which will help prove my question. If I cannot find two original sources, I am going to need a lot of secondary sources to use as proof. Once I find my sources, I will analyze the evidence, write citations for them, come to a conclusion and then write a genealogical proof. That is the proof standard in a nutshell.

So to start I have a question, and since this concerns Corn Blossom my question is:
Who was the wife of George Jacob Troxell b. 18 January 1758 in Frederick County, Maryland? 

who was big jake?
Since I don't know much about these folks, I am going to start my search by finding out what I can about Big Jake. According to his profile on wikitree he was born on 18 Jan 1758, a very specific date which I assume can only have come from a baptismal record or some other record that would include this information. Since this started on wikitree I will begin with their profile of him and then look at what other folks think they know about Jacob. Internet genealogy is full errors and it is a mistake to accept what others have written without checking their sources and verifying their evidence and sources.

1. wikitree info for George Jacob Troxel [2] as of 29 Oct 2016
Parents: David Troxel and Anna Elizabeth Elizabeth Saenger.
Born: 18 Jan 1748 Frederick, MD
Father:David was b. 27 July 1734 in Egypt, Bucks County PA the son of Peter Troxel and his wife Juliana Caterina Trauthanger. However the profile for Peter also says that he was married to a Juliana Caterina Deshler. Peter's father was born in Switzerland. Jacob's parents are said to have married in 1758, which is doubtful as their son is said to have been born on the 18th of January of that year.
wife: Corn Blossom, married in 1780 in Wayne County, Kentucky. she was born in 1770 in Tellico Plains in what is now Tennessee, the daughter of Doublehead and his unknown Delaware wife.
death: Jacob;10 October 1810 Yahoo Falls, Alabama. Corn Blossom; 13 October 1810 Sandy Cliffs, McCreary, Kentucky.
found on findagrave
children : Peter, Catherine, Mary, Sarah, Margaret, Elizabeth and William

There are no documented sources listed for any of this information. Also, this profile says that Corn Blossom was 10 years old at the time of her marriage to Jacob, which I find impossible to believe. And Yahoo Falls is in Kentucky, not Alabama. I also see nothing that links George Jacob to David Troxel.

2. findagrave [3]
This memorial page is a bit of mixed bag, and seems to include information on his son as well as him.
birth: 18 Jan 1758 Frederick County, MD
death: 1 July 1843 DeKalb County, AL
burial: Yahoo Falls in Kentucky
wife: Corn Blossom b. 1759 d. 1810 and Elizabeth Blevins b. 1785 d. 1860.
children: same, save no William

No documented sources. Different death date and place, but body transported to Kentucky for burial, a distance of 233 miles, sounds dubious to me. The findagrave memorial also contains two pictures it claims is Cornblossom, one a young woman and one a much older one, included above. These photos are obviously not of Cornblossom as she was dead long before the advent of commercial photography, some people fall for this stuff though.

birth: same 18 Jan 1758, but no source, also why is he called George Jacob, I cannot find anywhere where he is called George Jacob.
death; either 1810 or 1843, depending on the profile.

Some sources are found here, the US census, and his pension records. There is no source for his birth and there are no sources which would prove the relationship between George Jacob and David Troxell.

4. profile for George Jacob Troxell
This bio has the same info, birthday of 18 Jan 1758 and the death date of 1 July. No sources given for any information. This site does mix up the Jacob Troxell of Pennsylvania with the our Jacob from Maryland, especially the military service records.

5. website called The People of the Hunting Ground
This is a very entertaining website and gives a rousing version of Jacob Troxel. According to this version "Big Jake" was a half-breed Delaware Indian from Pennsylvania who was sent by General George Washington to treat with the Cherokee. He meet the lovely Corn Blossom and the rest was history. Both were killed in 1810 at the Massacre of Yahoo Falls.I think we can totally disregard this bio.

6. Rootsweb bio
This bio does two thing right off the bat, repeats the same information about Jacob, that he was born in Frederick in 1758. Below the "facts" the  writer states that the oft told 'legend' of Big Jake and Corn Blossom is romantic and "perhaps spurious." It also says that this family is from Pennsylvania but can trace it's Hebrew roots to Asia Minor. There's an interesting factoid,\; the Troxells were originally Jewish. Anyway, the bio then proceeds right down the line with the marriage of Jake and Corn Blossom, but no sources for any information are given. The author also places Jacob at Valley Forge with George Washington during the winter of 1777, but that is not true. According to his  own court testimony, Jacob was with George Washington's troops at Yorktown during the surrender of Cornwallis which occurred on 19 October 1781. [4]

What I notice right away about the internet genealogies of George Jacob is that there are no sources given for any of the information written about him. Time to go record hunting!

Jacob Toxell in the U.S. census and other records
Note: When I started this research I was unaware of traditional Pennsylvania naming traditions. Fellow researcher, Kathie Forbes, supplied the following very useful information. Pennsylvania German naming tradition was to give most boys a 'first' name of either Johann or George, which was actually their 'saints' name. What we, today,  think of as their 'middle' name, was the name they that were actually called. This leads to a lot of confusion and errors with names and is an explanation for the name George Jacob Troxell, who only appears in print as Jacob Troxell. 

1780 Loudoun County, VA List of Tithables: this is a list of taxable men over the age of 16 that reside in Loudoun County and includes: Christian Troxal, Geo: Jacob, Daniel, David, Frederick and a second Jacob Troxel. At the time these lists were drawn up, Loudoun was divided into two parishes; Cameron and Shelburne. George Jacob was recorded as residing in Cameron Parish for the years 79-80 and 82-85. David Troxell resided in Shelburne Parish during those years. Christian Troxell lived in Cameron in 75, 79-80 and in Shelburne in 82. Was Christian Troxell the father of George Jacob?

1790 US census:  There a quite a few men with the surname Troxell in the 1790 census living in Frederick, Maryland. There are no men by the name George or George Jacob, there are two men named Jacob Troxell. One has a family of 4 and one a family of 8. The Jacob with the family of 4 is said on the census to be "of  Peter," i.e. Peter's son. [5] If Jacob is the other Jacob Troxell his household size is 8. There are 3 males under 16, one over, and 4 females, undifferentiated. Everyone in this household is a free white personThe combination of the 1780 list of tithables, the 1790 census and the marriage records of Troxell children, make the family of 8 the most likely to be our Jacob. 

1810 US census:  Jacob is listed in the census for Wayne County, KY. His family has 5 members. There is one male over 45, we can assume this is Jacob. There is one male child under age 10. There is one female over the age 26 but not yet 45, possibly Jacob's wife aged between 24 and 45, but could also be a daughter, niece, or sister. There is one female under the age of 10 and one female over the age of 10 but not yet 15. So, two males and three females. All household members are listed as white. [6]

1830 US census:  Jacob is listed in the census for Marion County, Tennessee. He lives in a household of 6. He along with a female over 30 but not 39, live with 2 males under 14 and 2 females under 9. [7] (Clearly he did not die in 1810) The older female cannot be the same female as in the 1810 census.

1840 US census:  Jacob is then living in DeKalb County, Alabama. His name is misspelled (if this is him). He lives in a household of 4. One male over 80, 2 girls under 19 and one female age 40-49. [8]
The older female could be the same woman enumerated in the 1830 census.

Kentucky Land Records
1828 (5-27-1828)  Jacob Troxell  bought 50 acres of land along the Big South Fork, in Wayne County, Kentucky.  This must be a son? Because Jacob was already living in Tennessee at that time.
Kentucky Land Records 1832 100 acres
Kentucky Land Records 1833 50 acres on Rock Creek and Little South Fork [9]
also getting land grants at the same time and place was George W. Troxell - who was he?
See this page in the Kentucky Land Grants

Below is a timeline for Jacob based on his court testimony and documented US and other records. It is clear that he was a little off in some of his reckoning about how long he lived in each place but that does not impact this query.

Time line for Jacob Troxell 

1758/1759 born; as best as he could recollect, in Fredrick County, Maryland
1766 Peter Troxell dies in Frederick, MD, names wife Julianah Catherinath, children; Peter, Daniel David, John, Christian, Frederick, Julianah, and Margaritha. [10]
1771 age 13 moved to Loudoun, Virginia, lived there 19 years until age 32.
1777 age 18 drafted as a soldier from Loudoun, VA. served for about 1 month, he was with a company that and escort British prisoners to the lower part of Virginia.
1778 age 19 winter time, volunteered in a horse company at Red Stone (possibly Virginia) commanded by Captain Ford and Col. Crawford who was burned by the Indians. Marched to Ft. McIntosh, there they joined the regulars commanded by Col. Campbell and General McIntosh. Marched against the Shawnee and the Delaware to Ft. (cannot remember), he served for six months returning home to Loudoun about harvest time in 1779.
1780 Jacob is taxed in Loudoun County, VA. This means he has come of age and lives in his own household. This would confirm a birth year of 58/59  [11]
1781 age 22 drafted again from Loudoun, his commanders were Captain Lewis and Col. West, his company joined up with General Washington who was marching to Yorktown and was there for Cornwallis surrender. He served about 6 months and was again discharged. this was the last of his service, which ended in 1782.
1788 George Jacob appears on the list of tithables in Loudoun County as head of household, but owns no property. [12]
1790 US census, Jacob is listed in Frederick, MD
1790 testimony: age 32  moved back to Maryland, lived there for 4 years until age 36.
1794 testimony: age 36 moved to Sullivan County, TN, lived there for 4 years until age 40.
1798 testimony: age 40 moved to Sevier County, TN lived there for 3 years until age 43.
1801 testimony: age 43 moved to Pulaski, KY, lived there for 2 years until age 45.
1803 Katy Troxell married Jonathan Blevins in Wayne County Kentucky [13]
1803 testimony: age 45 moved to Wayne County, KY lived there for 20 years until age 65.
1810 US census listed in a household of 5 in Wayne, Kentucky.
1824 testimony: age 65 moved to Jackson County, AL lived there for 4 years until age 69.
1828 testimony: age 69 moved to Marion County, TN lived there for 4 years until age 73
1830 US census Jacob is listed in Marion County, TN
1832 testimony: age 73 said he had lived in Marion for 4 years so he was a bit off on his estimates.
1840 US census Jacob is in DeKalb County, Alabama
1843 Jacob died on 1 July 1843 in DeKalb County, Alabama

Jacob's military history
Jacob's military service is key to  this query as he is said to have married Corn Blossom in 1780, during the time of the American Revolution. In the winter of 1777, eighteen year old Jacob was drafted into service for a period of about one month. He said that his company escorted British prisoners of war to the lower part of Virginia. He did not recall the name of his commander or which company he was in.

General Lachlan McIntosh
The following year, again in winter, Jacob enlisted, as he recalls in a place called Red Stone, possibly in Virginia. Red Stone was actually a fort built by Virginia's militia in 1759, it was in what is now Fayette County, Pennsylvania, south and a bit east of Pittsburgh. His commanding officers were Capt. Ford and Col. Crawford. He distinctly remembered Col. Crawford as he said he was the same man who was burned by the Indians. In fact Col. William Crawford was tortured and burned to death in 1782 in what is now Wyandot County, Ohio. In 1778, Jacob marched from Red Stone Old Fort to Fort McIntosh, which was located on the banks of the Ohio River near modern day Beaver, Pennsylvania. There he joined the regulars under the command of Col. Crawford and General McIntosh for whom the fort was named. On November 19, 1778 the General and his troops, including 800 Virginia militiamen, left the fort and headed west into Indian territory. Their objective was  the destruction of Detroit, a British outpost that was the source of munitions and supplies for the British army. The British were also allies with the Shawnee, the Miami and the Mingo.

Prior to leaving, the Americans  signed a peace treaty with Chief White Eyes of the Delaware Nation. 60 Delaware Indians as well as their chief accompanied Gen. McIntosh as guides for his troops. Unfortunately, a Virginia Militiaman murdered the Chief, resulting in the desertion of the Delaware braves. This left McIntosh and his men in Indian territory with no allies or guides. He was forced to stop the expedition for Detroit, but he did build a second fort, named Fort Laurens, which was in modern day Ohio. Jacob was with Col. Crawford and General McIntosh for about 6 months before he returned home to Virginia. [14] See this well written article for more details of this expedition.

In July of 1781 General George Washington and his French allies made the fateful decision to leave the Hudson Heights in New York and head south to engage General Cornwallis, the British Commander at Yorktown, Virginia. On 19 September 1781 Washington's forces, who had sailed south, came ashore in Virginia at Archers Hope near the city of Williamsburg. [15] Lord Cornwallis surrendered to Washington and Rochambeau on 21 October 1781. Jacob testified that he joined up with the Washington's forces and was under the command of a Captain Lewis and a Colonel West and that he was at Yorktown  during and after the surrender. He said he was in service for about 6 months, after which he returned home. That was the extent of his military service.

Sometime during this period Jacob supposedly met and married a Cherokee woman in Kentucky. So who was Corn Blossom the daughter of Doublehead. Let's start with Doublehead.

Doublehead is said to have been born around 1744, why 1744 and not 1745, I have no clue. His father is believed to be Great Eagle, but this is a guess and by no means proven. His parents, his date and  place of birth are actually unknown. One author, noted archaeologist and Tennessee historian, Charles H. Faulkner, states that claim by Grace Woodward  that Doublehead and Pumkin Boy were brothers of Old Tassel are doubtful, and says that no ethnohistorians have made that connection. [16] He came to prominence in the 1790's as a leader of the Chickamauga Cherokee. In 1791 he was among a group of Cherokee leaders who signed the Treaty of Holston which was meant to  end the hostility between the US and the Cherokee nation.[17] 

Inspired by the Cherokee chief know as Dragging Canoe, Doublehead participated in the seventeen year guerrilla resistance against white colonial expansion into their territory. There are two shocking stories about Doublehead that give credence to his reputation as a vicious killer. Both incidents occurred in 1793, after the death of his brother Pumpkin Boy. In the first he and others killed two white men in Kentucky. What happened next sickened some of the participants, they stripped the flesh from the dead men, roasted it, and ate it. Supposedly this was in imitation of Mohawks warriors who were said to treat their enemy with the same gruesome end.

The second incident occurred the same year. Doublehead was with several other Cherokee leaders including his nephew John Watts and James Vann. [18] The men were leading a force of warriors against Knoxville, Tennessee. They came up to a place called Cavett's Station, the fortified home of Alexander Cavett. Cavett and his family were holed up in his house, vastly outnumbered. They negotiated a surrender and came out with their hands up. Doublehead disregarded the surrender and swiftly killed Cavett and his family. Angered James Vann picked up a little boy trying to protect him. Doublehead dashed the boy's brains out with a tomahawk. Ever after Vann called Doublehead "babykiller." [19] These stories, and other like them, are what are know as "biomyths." Biomyths are the combination of myth, biography, history and often what we want their history to be. Still, author Tiya Miles, says, "In the absence of traditional historical documentation, these bio myths illuminated the texture, if not the verifiable facts." In other words, even if the stores are not true, Doublehead was certainly capable of such acts, if not guilty these and of other similar actions. One further undocumented action, which is said to have greatly angered James Vann, was the beating death, by Doublehead, of his pregnant wife, the sister of one of  James Vann's wives. [20] 

Doublehead's power continued to grow. Upon the death of his nephew, John Watts in 1802, he became leader of the Chickamauga Cherokee, or lower Cherokee.[21] He moved his base of operation to his new settlement called Coldwater located at the head of Muscle Shoals in what is now the state of Alabama. Note: according to another author Doublehead made the move to Coldwater Creek near Tuscumbria, Alabama in 1769 -1770.[22] This area was home to the Chickasaw, but Doublehead supposedly married two of his daughters to their chief, George Colbert. Here he became a rich man, selling off Cherokee lands to the whites.

Doublehead was assassinated by his fellow Cherokee in revenge for the sale of their land. Ironically, James Vann was one of the men chosen to carry out the orders. [23] After his death, several men came and carried away all his goods, cattle, slaves and other belongings, leaving his children without their inheritance.

There is clearly much more to the Doublehead story, and he was a complex and fascinating character, but this is not about Doublehead, it's about a said daughter of his.  Of note, there is nothing that would indicated that he was born or lived in Kentucky. Some of his wives are known, James Vann's sister and another woman named Nancy Drumgoole.  It is likely that he lived with his people in the Overhill towns along the Little Tennessee River.   In the early internet messages and bio's about Doublehead, his wife and the mother of Corn Blossom was said to be a woman named Creat Priber, the daughter of a German man named Christian Priber. Creat seems to have been replaced rather recently by the unknown Delaware woman. So, the next question is who was Creat Priber and was she the mother of Corn Blossom or was it some unknown Delaware Indian woman?

Creat Priber
I have to start by saying that the name Creat Priber appears nowhere in the historical records available today, meaning there is no evidence that she existed. She is said to be the daughter of a German man named Christian Priber who lived with the Cherokee Indians from 1736 to 1742. The wikitree profile for Priber has a excellent, sourced bio, written by researcher Kathie Forbes, who is helping me with this article.

Christian abandoned his German family and created a new life with the Cherokee in Tellico, one of the Cherokee Overhill Towns in Tennessee. At that time their leader was Moytoy and Tellico, where he lived is said to have been the "defacto capitol" of the Cherokee. According to Ludovic Grant, an Indian Trader, who wrote about the Cherokee, Christian Priber "married into the Cherokee."[24] Priber began to educated the Cherokee in the ways of the Europeans, and showed them that the British were not trading fairly, he apparently cautioned against the selling of their lands. This of, course, made the British unhappy and he was captured and sent to prison in 1744, where he died sometime before 1750.

The names of his wife or wives and children, if there were any, were not recorded.

Delaware woman
In 1770 the Cherokee Nation was located  in the area where North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Georgia, and Alabama come together. In the 1600's and early 1770's, the Delaware Indians, who were not as organized as the Cherokee, lived in the Delaware River Valley. White settlers pushed them westward and by 1770 they live in Pennsylvania and Ohio. How would a Cherokee man marry a Delaware woman in 1770? I cannot answer that question. They lived about 500 miles apart, I think it's pretty far fetched.

corn blossom
So, this brings us to Corn Blossom. What can I say? There is not a single document anywhere that contains the name Corn Blossom or Pawalin, as relates to Jacob Troxell or Doublehead. She simple does not exist on paper. According to author Rickey Butch Walker who has written a book on Doublehead, she was born in 1770. How he knows this I do not know, and he doesn't share as his book does not give citations for his statements. Wikitree and a host of other Corn Blossom fans say that she married Jacob Troxell in 1780. This would make her a 10 year old child, living with her Cherokee family in Tennessee, who somehow met and married a man who lived on a farm in Loudoun County, Virginia. And here in lies the crux of the problem. In order to prove a marriage using the genealogical proof standard we have to have some documentation.

Now, I have seen many people throw out the "well I'm here, I'm proof." Your existence is only proof that a sperm met an egg and a child was concieved, that's it.

our conclusion
As I said, this was a joint effort to discover any documentation that would lend credence to the claim that Jacob Troxell married a woman named Pawalin/Cornblossom in about 1780. We can find nothing that would indicate that this woman existed, never mind married Jacob. Doublehead lived in Tennessee and as the Cherokee Nation was pushed south, he moved into Northern Alabama. Noted Cherokee Historian, the late Jerri Chastain, did not believe that Cornblossom existed. She was certified by the Oklahoma Court of Appeals and the United States Supreme Court as an expert on Cherokee history. It's hard to argue with a myth, you cannot disprove the unprovable. But we are talking about genealogy here, and in genealogy you don't exist without proof.

just a word about books
Anyone can write a book these days, and almost anyone can get one published.  Heck, I am writing a book, and if I ever finish it, I'll figure out how to publish it! But not all books are created equal, and their content should not be weighted the same. What make a great history book or a great biography; a book that can teach us about our past, our ancestors and their lives? The key to a great history book is the objectivity of its author.

An article written by Wendie E. Schneider and  published in the Yale Law Journal, related to a court case which involved a 'history' book, laid out seven points which described what is meant by an objective historian:

     1. The historian must treat sources with appropriate reservations
     2. The historian must not dismiss counter-evidence without scholarly consideration
     3. This historian must be even-handed in treatment of evidence and eschew "cherry-picking"
     4. The historian must clearly indicate any speculation
     5. The historian must not mis-translate documents or mislead by omitting parts of documents
     6. The historian must weight the authenticity of all accounts, not merely those that contradict a
         a favored view.
     7. The historian must take the motives of historical actors into consideration.

There are some books out there about the Cherokee, about Doublehead, etc. Some people use them as sources, but ask yourself, what is the author's source? Is it documented? Can I duplicate their research? Do they have a motive or a bias? Many people write genealogy/history books about their own ancestors and are not objective in their writing. They may slant the facts or ignore them altogether to fit their desired ancestor into the story. A good historian always cites the sources for their claims. 

thank you
A big thank you to my fellow researcher Kathie Forbes for all her hard work on this article. I certainly appreciate your help and your willingness to go to the library to search sources not available online.

[1] Thomas W. Jones, Mastering Genealogical Proof, (Arlington, Virginia : National Genealogical Society, 2013) 3.

[2] Sandra Evans, Teresa Langford, Keith Price, Melissa Wise,  "George Jacob "Big Jake" Troxel formerly Troxell aka Trachsel," profile no. Troxell-17, database with images, Wikitree ( : accessed 29 October 2016).

[3] Find A Grave, database and images ( : accessed 29 October 2016 ),memorial page for George Jacob "Big Jake" Troxell  (1758-1843), Find A Grave Memorial no. 130755940, citing Yahoo Falls Cemetery, Whitley City, McCreary County, Kentucky; this memorial is a mixed bag, but has no sources.

[4] Donald Yates, "Cooper-Yates-Choctaw-Cherokee and Sephardic in GA-Tenn-Ala," Rootsweb ( : accessed 30 October 2016) database, bio #I04027, George Jacob Troxell, last revised 2010.

[5] 1790 U.S. census, Fredrick County, Maryland, p. 214 (penned) col. 1, line 1, Jacob Troxell, image ( : accessed 29 October 2016) citing National Archives and Records Administration microfilm M637, roll 3.; there are 3 Jacob Troxells in the 1790 census for Frederick, Maryland, this Jacob is said, on the census, to be the son of Peter, making it likely that he is our Jacob.

[6] 1810 U.S. census, Wayne County, Kentucky, p. 362 (penned) col. 2, line 25, Jacob Troxell, image, ( : accessed 29 October 2016) citing National Archives and Records Administration microfilm M252, roll 8. Also on this census is Peter Troxell, most likely his son.

[7] 1830 U.S. census, Marion County, Tennessee, p. 65 (penned) line 16, Jacob Troxell, image, ( : accessed 29 October 2016) citing National Archives and Record Administration microfilm M19, roll 175.

[8] 1840 U.S. census, DeKalb County, Alabama, p. 3 (penned) line 9, J. Froxil [sic], image, ( : accessed 29 October 2016) citing National Archives and Record Administration microfilm M704, roll 4. appears to say J. Froxil but has been stated that thisis Jacob Troxell.  

[9] W. Rouse Jillson, The Kentucky land grants: a systematic index to all of the land grants recorded in the state Land office at Frankfort, Kentucky, 1782-1924, ( Louisville, Ky.: The Standard printing company, incorporated, 1925) 749.

[10] Frederick County Wills, 1748-1766 Liber A1 Folio 1-278 (CR 49, 159) Abstracted by Leslie and Neil Keddie The Family Tree Bookshop

[11] Ruth Sparacio, Sam Sparacio, Tithables, Loudoun County, Virginia 1775-1781, (McLean, Virginia :  Antient  Press, 1991).

[12] Augusta B. Fothergill and John Mark Naugle, "Virginia Taxpayers 1782-1787, other than those published by the United States Census Bureau," 1940, ExLibrisRosetta ( : accessed 5 November 2016).

[13] "Kentucky, County Marriages, 1797-1954," database with images, FamilySearch ( : accessed 30 October 2016), Jonathan Blevins and Katy Troxall, 07 Apr 1803; citing Wayne, Kentucky, United States, Madison County Courthouse, Richmond; FHL microfilm 591,550.

[14] Bruce T. Hancock, "McIntosh's Military Expedition and Command 1778-1779," ( : accessed 30 October 2016).

[15] Robert Selig, Washington, Rochambeau and the Yorktown Campaign of 1781.

[16] Charles H. Faulkner, Massacre at Cavett's Station: Frontier Tennessee during the Cherokee Wars, (Knoxville, Tennessee : University of Tennessee Press, 2013) 61.

[17] "Treaty of Holston, 1791," Cherokee Nation ( : accessed 31 October 2016).

[18] Charles H. Faulkner, Massacre at Cavett's Station: Frontier Tennessee during the Cherokee Wars, (Knoxville, Tennessee : University of Tennessee Press, 2013) 61.

[19] Tiya Miles, The House on Diamond Hill: A Cherokee Plantation, (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2010).

[20] Miles, The House on Diamond Hill.

[21] Charles H. Faulkner, Massacre at Cavett's Station: Frontier Tennessee during the Cherokee Wars, (Knoxville, Tennessee : University of Tennessee Press, 2013) 61.

[22] William R. Reynolds, The Cherokee Struggle to Maintain Identity in the 17th and 18th Centuries(Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland, 2015).

[23] Ojibwa, "Doublehead a Cherokee Traitor," Native American Netroots ( : accessed 31 October 2016).

[24] Ludovic Grant, “Historical Relation of Facts.” Charleston Probate Court Book 1754-1758, p. 30, reprinted in the Journal of Cherokee Studies, Voll XXVI pp. 8-9

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